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The World War I commemorations were boycotted by Serb nationalists and dignitaries, who, along with Bosnian Serbs, view "Princip as a hero. One defendant died during the trial and the charges against him were dropped. Serbia has no hand in it and cannot be held responsible for our deed." Princip checked in with Ili, visited his family in Hadici and returned to Sarajevo on 6 June taking up residence at Ili's mother's house with Ili. Serbia published no clarifications of their confessions with regards to the Sarajevo attack. [28] Franz Ferdinand and his party proceeded by train from Ilida Spa to Sarajevo. [71] The second car carried the Mayor and the Chief of Police of Sarajevo. But fewer people may know the story of how it happened, and why a seemingly isolated act could set off a four year war with a staggering cost. [90] The Sarajevo Chief of Police Edmund Gerde, who had earlier repeatedly warned Potiorek of insufficient security precautions for the imperial visit, was asked by one of the Archduke's aides to tell the drivers of the new route, but in the confusion and tensions of the moment, he neglected to do so. [11], The three members of the original assassination team acknowledged full responsibility for their acts, proclaiming their ideal of a liberated and united South Slav people, exonerating Serbia and the Narodna Odbrana whose responsibility the prosecution tried to prove; however the court did not believe the defendants' statements as they differed from their depositions made at the preliminary investigation. The subsequent explosion wounded two army officers and several bystanders but left Ferdinand and Sophie essentially unharmed. hope this helps! A map of the Balkans in 1914, showing recent territorial changes and the extent of Ottoman rule. He had worked as a schoolteacher and as a bank worker but in 1913 and 1914 he lived with, and outwardly off, his mother, who operated a small boarding house in Sarajevo. [4], The new dynasty was more nationalist, friendlier to Russia and less friendly to Austria-Hungary. C. How did nationalism contribute to the beginning of the war? [94] The driver applied the brakes, and when he attempted to put the car into reverse gear he accidentally stalled the engine close to where Princip was standing. Because European nations had numerous colonies around the world, the war soon became a global conflict. Many people who lived during this time called this a very traumatic era because just after the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, World War 1 started. To this day, it remains unclear whether the Serbian government participated in the scheme. "[81], Officials and members of the Archduke's party discussed what to do next. The majority of the defendants were charged with conspiracy to commit high treason involving official circles in the Kingdom of Serbia. [11] Conspiracy to commit high treason carried a maximum sentence of death which conspiracy to commit simple murder did not. The actual causes of the war are more complicated and are still debated by historians today. Hamburg had the German Derby. "[98] Princip tried to shoot himself, but was immediately seized and arrested. On the morning of Sunday 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Countess Sophie Chotek von Chotkowa und Wognin, arrived by train in the city of Sarajevo and joined a motorcade for the ride to the city hall. On the eve of the assassinations centennial, find out how a teenage Serbian nationalist provided the spark for World War I. The immediate cause of the outbreak of the First World War was the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, on 28 June 1914. "[136], As the three condemned men were driven to their execution, Apis remarked to the driver: "Now it is clear to me and clear to you too, that I am to be killed today by Serbian rifles solely because I organized the Sarajevo outrage. The bullet fired by Gavrilo Princip, sometimes referred to as "the bullet that started World War I",[191] is a museum exhibit in the Konopit Castle near the town of Beneov in the Czech Republic. Cabrinovic jumped into the mostly dry riverbed and made a half-hearted attempt to kill himself before being apprehended. [57] abrinovi handed over the weapons he was carrying to Princip and Grabe. In July. All Rights Reserved. A failed assassination attempt. The Legacy of Franz Ferdinand", This page was last edited on 23 January 2023, at 10:39. The second looks for the deeper, underlying causes of the conflict by closely studying global trends that had been building over many years. The emperor admitted to his daughter, regarding the assassination: "For me, it is a relief from a great worry. The bomb bounced off the folded back convertible cover into the street. On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated at Sarajevo. How did nationalism lead to problems with foreign relations? "[3] General Petrovi was then killed when Vojislav Tankosi organized the murders of Queen Draga's brothers. The archduke was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist named Gavrilo Princip on June 28, 1914. The Archduke and his wife, Sophie the Duchess of Hohenberg, were assassinated by members of the Black Hand on July 28, 1914. [5] Over the next decade, disputes between Serbia and its neighbors erupted, as Serbia moved to build its power and gradually reclaim its 14th-century empire. The King was subsequently shot thirty times and the Queen eighteen. [171][172], Within two days of the assassination, Austria-Hungary and Germany advised Serbia that it should open an investigation, but Secretary-General to the Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Slavko Gruji, replied: "Nothing had been done so far and the matter did not concern the Serbian Government." [183] This was followed by another statue in Belgrade, which was erected in June 2015. Four years later [after WW1 began] they have poison, gas, heavy bombs bombing cities, submarines, machine guns, artillery, tanks," Carlin said. They wanted eight dreadnoughts, which I think we eventually had. 1914 murder in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Assassination illustrated in the Italian newspaper, Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. 2014 CBS Interactive Inc. All Rights Reserved. It is outrageous. From late 1916 into early 1917, secret peace talks took place between Austria-Hungary and France. Soon thereafter occurred the Sarajevo assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. [97] According to Albertini, "the first bullet wounded the Archduke in the jugular vein, the second inflicted an abdominal wound on the Duchess. On this Wikipedia the language links are at the top of the page across from the article title. Further along the route, Ili had placed Nedeljko abrinovi on the opposite side of the street near the Miljacka River, arming him with a bomb. [35], There are no reports as to what took place between Ili and Apis during the alleged meeting, but soon Apis's righthand man and fellow Black Hander, Serbian Major Vojislav Tankosi, who by this time was in charge of guerrilla training, called a Serbian irredentist planning meeting in Toulouse, France. 1. We had news of the assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand and his wife, and the next thing we knew war was declared on Serbia. Carlin attests that if not for this assassination, history may have taken a completely different course. [79], Arriving at the Town Hall for a scheduled reception, Franz Ferdinand showed understandable signs of stress, interrupting a prepared speech of welcome by Mayor Fehim Curi to protest: "Mr. Mayor, I came here on a visit and I am greeted with bombs. We had the feeling towards 1914 that England was envying Germanys successes in industry and so on and that England wouldnt allow Germany to enlarge the fleet very much. The assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand played a key role in causing the war due to those involved. Princip explained to the court he had already read about Franz Ferdinand's upcoming visit in German papers. The assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914 set off a chain of events that led to war in early August 1914. The assassination of Franz Ferdinand was a trigger for WW1, but imperialism, nationalism, militarism and alliances were the major causes of WW1. There is evidence that Russia was at least aware of the plot before 14 June. Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife photographed shortly before their assassination during their official visit to Sarajevo, 28 June 1914. The assassination precipitated the July Crisis which led to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia and the start of World War I. On 23 May Apis and eight of his associates were sentenced to death; two others were sentenced to 15 years in prison. But in 1914, the Habsburg family had ruled this empire for almost four centuries. 667 Words3 Pages. On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated at Sarajevo. [91], After learning that the first assassination attempt had been unsuccessful, Princip thought about a position to assassinate the Archduke on his return journey, and decided to move to a position in front of a nearby food shop (Schiller's delicatessen), near the Latin Bridge. "[18], In May 1911, the Black Hand, a secret society dedicated to creating a Greater Serbia through "terrorist action", was established by key members of the Narodna Odbrana including Dimitrijevi and Tankosi. A recruitment campaign was immediately launched to swell the ranks. Austria-Hungary was furious and, with Germany's support, declared war on Serbia on July 28. At one point, Ciganovi told Grabe: "Nothing doing, the old Emperor is ill and the Heir Apparent [sic] will not go to Bosnia. [38], According to Mehmedbai while he was traveling to Bosnia-Herzegovina from France, police searched his train for a thief. [87] The imperial couple were dead by 11:30a.m on 28 June 1914;[101] Sophie was dead on arrival at the Governor's residence, and Franz Ferdinand died 10 minutes later. The Serbian High Court reduced the number of death sentences to seven. Anti-Serb rioting broke out in Sarajevo and various other places within Austria-Hungary in the hours following the assassination until order was restored by the military. Two shots in Sarajevo ignited the fires of war and drew Europe toward World War I. Ordinary people did not really care about what happened, and on the evening of the assassination the crowds in Vienna listened to music and drank wine, as if nothing had happened. [72], Security arrangements within Sarajevo were limited. The motorcade passed the first assassin, Mehmedbai. All six assassins, except Mehmedbai, were under twenty at the time of the assassination; while the group was dominated by Bosnian Serbs, four of the indictees were Bosnian Croats, and all of them were Austro-Hungarian citizens, none from Serbia. For once, Sophie was permitted to walk alongside Ferdinand during a brief troop inspection, after which the couple got in an open-topped car for a motorcade ride to city hall. [83][84] This is confirmed by photographs of the scene outside the Town Hall. Princip's legacy was re-evaluated following the breakup of Yugoslavia, and public opinion of him in the successor states is largely divided along ethnic lines. Trump met with early primary state GOP leaders, Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated 100 years ago Saturday, which was the event that triggered World War I, Photograph shows Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (1863-1914) with his children ca/ 1910-14, 100 years since Ferdinand's death sparked WWI, Ukraine says it's ready if Russia tries to invade again from Belarus. The June 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand by the Serbian Black Hand Group, caused Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia. The assassination occurred in Sarajevo when the motorcade was traveling to Sarajevo when a member of the Black Hand threw a bomb at the motorcade. It was the first time that my parents took me to the races, and a short while before the Derby the music broke off; we didnt know the reason. What events did the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand trigger that led to war? abrinovi's suicide attempt failed, as the old cyanide only induced vomiting, and the Miljacka was only 13cm deep due to the hot, dry summer. Mehmedbai was (here quoting Albertini paraphrasing Mehmedbai) "eager to carry out an act of terrorism to revive the revolutionary spirit of Bosnia. Though not exactly a commoner, Sophie came from a family of obscure Czech nobles and not from a reigning or formerly reigning dynasty of Europe. "[123] Cabrinovi testified that he was motivated to kill Franz Ferdinand because he saw him as a danger to the Slavs and to Serbia, something he claimed to have heard in cafes from students and citizens. MacKenzie writes that "the royal corpses were then stripped and brutally sabred. What is nationalism? Please enter valid email address to continue. [48] The three assassins from Belgrade testified that Major Tankosi, directly and through Ciganovi, not only provided six hand grenades and four new Browning FN Model 1910 automatic pistols with .380 ACP ammunition,[47] but also money,[48] suicide pills,[49] training,[50] a special map with the location of gendarmes marked,[51] knowledge of contacts on a clandestine "tunnel" used to infiltrate agents and arms into Austria-Hungary,[52] and a small card authorizing the use of that tunnel. [186][183] The 100th anniversary of the assassination was commemorated with a concert by the Vienna Philharmonic in the Sarajevo City Hall, in an event that was organized by the European Union. The assassins were given access to the same clandestine network of safe-houses and agents that Malobabi used for the infiltration of weapons and operatives into Austria-Hungary. The "Black Hand" was a Serbian military society formed on 9 May 1911 by officers in the Army of the Kingdom of Serbia, originating in the conspiracy group that assassinated the Serbian royal couple in May 1903, led by captain Dragutin Dimitrijevi (Commonly referred to as "Apis").[153]. abrinovi moved back into his father's house in Sarajevo. When Ferdinand. Belgium was a neutral country. I got into Austria where I had friends and found that it was almost impossible to get to England because of the troops going to France. They and their weapons reached the island on 31 May. On 26 March Ili and Mehmedbai had already agreed to kill Franz Ferdinand based on instructions from Belgrade predating the newspaper clipping and the discussions amongst the three assassins in Belgrade. [82], Franz Ferdinand and Sophie gave up their planned program in favor of visiting the wounded from the bombing, at the hospital. They practised shooting a few rounds of scarce and expensive .380 ACP pistol ammunition in a park near Belgrade. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand led to World War I. [93] At this point, the first and second cars of the Archduke's motorcade suddenly turned right into a side street, leaving the Appel Quay. Going back to the years before I ever joined the Navy, 1908, one of the slogans were, politically: We want eight and we wont wait. But many of them, all the Slavs, the Czechs, the Slovaks, the Serbs, those in Herzegovina, and later the Poles, were absolutely dissatisfied with the role which they played as nationalities in the state. Meanwhile, seven Young Bosnians had fanned out along the Appel Quay, a main avenue in Sarajevo running parallel to the Miljacka River. Because of that 'I went to Loznica and either that day or very soon afterwards sent Rade and that teacher into Bosnia.' World War I was sparked by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914 and ended with the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. After practicing with their pistols in a Belgrade park, the three men journeyed back to Bosnia-Herzegovina, receiving help from Black Hand associates to smuggle their weapons across the border. Post is fun and all, but people should be aware of the glaring historical inaccuracy here: Gavrilo Princip was not eating a sandwich when he shot Archduke Ferdinand. It is there that I made up my mind sooner or later to perpetrate an outrage. This was in protest to Austria-Hungary having control of this region. Why did the Black Hand want to kill the Archduke? By mistake, however, the first three cars turned onto a side street right where Princip happened to be standing. Some serious personal misadventure might befall him. [4] The conspirators installed Peter I of the House of Karaorevi as the new king. How could Serbia be brought into the affair?". This dental device was sold to fix patients' jaws. After swallowing a cyanide pill which only made him sick, assassin Gavrilo Princip was dragged from an angry crowd and arrested for shooting Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife. The result would be the Great War that changed the course of the twentieth century. As a result, their children were declared ineligible for the throne. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914 has been so manipulated and mythologised that it's time we spoke of a 'Sarajevo myth', argues historian Paul Miller-Melamed. "There Was an Alternative! At 10:45a.m, Franz Ferdinand and Sophie got back into the motorcade, once again in the third car. Seven young men who had been trained in bomb throwing and marksmanship were stationed along the route that Franz Ferdinand's car would follow from the City Hall to the inspection. [140] Other voices eventually spoke out on the "warning". Danilo Ili had placed him in front of the garden of the Mostar Cafe and armed him with a bomb. abrinovi inquired of the detective the date of Franz Ferdinand's visit to Sarajevo. The Kaiser left on the Monday morning and whistled back to Berlin. [134] Cvjetko Popovi, Gavrilo Princip, and Trifun Grabe failed to act as the motorcade passed them at high speed. [117], Following the assassination, Franz Joseph's daughter, Marie Valerie, noted that her father expressed his greater confidence in the new heir presumptive, his grandnephew Archduke Charles. Under the Secret Treaty of 1892 Russia and France were obliged to mobilize their armies if any of the Triple Alliance mobilized. On 26 March 1914,[39] Ili informed Mehmedbai that Belgrade (meaning the Black Hand) thought that an attack of Franz Ferdinand instead of the Potiorek would be far more important and that they would support it. We fired a royal salute of 21 guns at three minute intervals at midday as a funereal salute to the archduke. [38] Once he arrived in Bosnia-Herzegovina he wrote to Gacinovi and did nothing more until Ili wrote to him to summon him to Mostar. His journey might give rise to incidents and demonstrations that Serbia would deprecate but that would have fatal repercussions on Austro-Serbian relations. [107] Those in Austro-Hungarian custody were tried together with members of the infiltration route who had helped deliver them and their weapons to Sarajevo. It was 28 June 1914, in the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo. Was it really a lunch-hour coincidence that led to the death of the Archduke in Sarajevo in 1914and, by extension, World War I? The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand was the sparking event that caused Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia and officially started the Great War. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosniaks and Croats largely view Gavrilo Princip as a terrorist and an ethnic Serb nationalist. Franz Ferdinand had to wait as his own speech, still wet with blood from being in the damaged car, was brought to him. Much of what is known about the assassinations comes from these two trials and related records. He and Sophie then boarded a train for the short ride into Sarajevo. While in Sarajevo, the royal couple was targeted by a small band of Serbian nationalists, outraged by Austria's takeover of Bosnia-Herzegovina. These conflicts included a customs dispute with Austria-Hungary beginning in 1906 (commonly referred to as the "Pig War");[6] the Bosnian crisis of 19081909, in which Serbia assumed an attitude of protest over Austria-Hungary's annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina (ending in Serbian acquiescence without compensation in March 1909);[7] and finally the two Balkan Wars of 19121913, in which Serbia acquired Macedonia and Kosovo from the Ottoman Empire and drove out Bulgaria. "[149] On the eve of his execution, Malobabi told a priest: "They ordered me to go to Sarajevo when that assassination was to take place, and when everything was over, they ordered me to come back and fulfill other missions, and then there was the outbreak of the war. [65] Grabe joined his family in Pale. But because of Franz Ferdinand's ill health in the 1890s, his younger brother Otto was regarded as more likely to . The Black Hand's first attempt at assassination failed when their bomb exploded and missed the car he was travelling in. We must not oversimplify the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, argues historian Paul Miller-Melamed. Sophie, Sophie, dont diestay alive for our children, Ferdinand murmured. Ferdinand remained Franz Josefs heir and inspector general of the army. One cause of WWI is the assassination of Archduke, Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and his wife on June 28, 1914 by a Serbian nationalist from the Black Hand organization. A Comparative Study of the July Crisis and Its Precursors", Newsreels about Franz Ferdinand's assassination at www.europeanfilmgateway.eu, Prison Interview with Gavrilo Princip after the Assassination, Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, Historical Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo School of Science and Technology, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Assassination_of_Archduke_Franz_Ferdinand&oldid=1135220308, Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Improvised explosive device bombings in Europe, Terrorist incidents in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles using infobox templates with no data rows, Pages using infobox event with blank parameters, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles containing Serbian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, Death by hanging (executed 3 February 1915), Death by hanging; commuted to 20 years in prison by Kaiser Franz-Joseph based on the recommendation of the Finance Minister, Death by hanging; commuted to life in prison by Kaiser Franz-Joseph based on recommendation of the court and Finance Minister, Death by firing squad (executed 26 June 1917) and 70 dinar court fee and additional witness fees, 15 years in prison (commuted and released in 1919) and 60 dinar court fee and additional witness fees, Fomenko, A. Princip told abrinovi to go alone to Zvornik, make an official crossing there using Grabe's ID card and then go on to Tuzla and link back up. The catastrophic event reveals a lot about the political and social tensions that . The event triggered the start of World War I and ushered in decades of war and political upheaval throughout Europe and across the globe. [76] The bomb's timed detonator caused it to explode under the next car, putting that car out of action, leaving a 1-foot-diameter (0.30m), 6.5-inch-deep (170mm) crater,[75] and wounding 1620 people.[77]. In response to the assassination of Ferdinand, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Sophie's coffin was slanted down from her husband's to reassert her lower social status, gloves were placed on top of her casket as was traditional for a lady-in-waiting. After receiving a telegram of support from Russia, Serbia mobilized its army and responded to the letter by completely accepting point #8 demanding an end to the smuggling of weapons and punishment of the frontier officers who had assisted the assassins and completely accepting point #10 which demanded Serbia report the execution of the required measures as they were completed. The murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand outraged Austria-Hungary In June 1914, Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie traveled to Bosniawhich had been annexed by. Published: June 28, 2022 at 3:30 am. 'The assassination of the Austrian archduke took place on the day of the German Derby. By the following week, Germany, Russia, France, Belgium, Montenegro and Great Britain had all been drawn into the conflict, and other countries like the United States would enter later. And here we are today, 100 years later. 5. The following day, anti-Serb demonstrations in Sarajevo became more violent and could be characterized as a pogrom. [47], The rest of the weapons were finally delivered on 26 May. Hitler sent it to the Berlin Zeughaus where it was put on display in the military museum until 1945 when it disappeared. On June the 28th 1914, Gavirilo Princip along with two other students living in Serbia were waiting in the crowd, watching Franz Ferdinand, who was to be the future ruler of Austria-Hungary. Hear how people reacted tothisnews in episode two. An alternative theory to the Sarajevo attack being a Serbian Military Intelligence Operation was that it was a "Black Hand" operation. This event wasn't the real cause of the war, it was just the spark that started it. [173] After conducting a criminal investigation, verifying that Germany would honor its military alliance, and persuading the skeptical Hungarian Count Istvn Tisza, Austria-Hungary issued a formal letter to the government of Serbia on 23 July 1914. The Assassination Of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Of Austria By the second term the Great War had accelerated and the nation was forced to enter. Well, these festivities lasted until the Sunday, and Sunday night we heard that Archduke Franz Ferdinand, who was the heir to the throne of Austria, had been murdered with his wife down in Bosnia. There is evidence that parallel discussions were held between Austria-Hungary and Serbia with Prime Minister Pai dispatching his righthand man Stojan Proti and Regent Alexander dispatching his confidant Colonel Petar ivkovi to Geneva on secret business. Under this same treaty, the Great Powers (Austria-Hungary, the United Kingdom, France, the German Empire, Italy, and the Russian Empire) gave official recognition to the Principality of Serbia as a fully sovereign state, which four years later transformed into a kingdom under Prince Milan IV Obrenovi who thus became King Milan I of Serbia. [21], In 1913, Emperor Franz Joseph commanded Archduke Franz Ferdinand to observe the military maneuvers in Bosnia scheduled for June 1914. 1914. I was there at the time yet as far as I could judge from my conversation with members of his (Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov's) entourage, he (Sazonov) was convinced that if the Archduke (Franz Ferdinand) were out of the way, the peace of Europe would not be endangered. Get browser notifications for breaking news, live events, and exclusive reporting. Updated on August 21, 2019. Overall, more than 16 million peoplesoldiers and civiliansdied in fighting that lasted until 1918. [16] (General Vereanin went on to crush the last Bosnian peasant uprising in the second half of 1910). "[121] ubrilovi explained that he was afraid a revolutionary organization capable of committing great atrocities stood behind Princip and that he therefore feared his house would be destroyed and his family killed if he did not comply and explained that he knew such an organization existed in Serbia, at least at one time. This set off a chain of events that led to war. Formerly controlled by the Ottoman Empire, Bosnia-Herzegovinas population was roughly 40 percent Serb, 30 percent Muslim and 20 percent Croat, with various other ethnicities making up the remainder. Within days, Germany declared war on RussiaSerbia's allyand invaded France via Belgium, which then caused . A Serbian nationalist group there was involved in the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, which directly triggered the outbreak of war. [29] Princip, abrinovi and other members of the Young Bosnia were inspired by the heroism of Milo Obili, reenacting the Kosovo Myth. He then asked: "No one else knew of it beyond Ciganovi and ourselves. 6. Ili was a member of a secret revolutionary society or Kruok organized on the model of the Black Hand. The shots fired 100 years ago by Gavrilo Princip were not fired at Europe, they were shots for freedom, marking the start of the Serbs' fight for liberation from foreign occupiers. [36] Amongst those summoned to the Toulouse meeting was Muhamed Mehmedbai, a Bosniak carpenter from Herzegovina. On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife were assassinated by a Serbian-backed terrorist. [100] These utterances were followed by a violent choking sound caused by hemorrhage. [11][12] In the five years leading up to 1914, lone assassins mostly Serb citizens of Austria-Hungary made a series of unsuccessful assassination attempts in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina against Austro-Hungarian officials. banjo paterson funeral poem,